Judaism

The term used of the religion and culture of the Jewish people from the time of the Return from Exile to the present day, but especially from the Maccabean age. ‘Early Judaism’ is often dated from 167 BCE when the Temple was desecrated (2 Macc. 6:4). In the three centuries BCE/CE Judaism was pluralist, embracing nationalists like the Hasmoneans, apocalyptists [[➝ apocalyptic]] who wrote the book of Daniel, quietists like the Essenes, as well as the Pharisees and Sadducees. There were also Herodians (Mark 3:6) who entered into friendship with the royal family, and Zealots who ‘came out’ during the Jewish Revolt of 66–73 CE and fought the Romans, and the heterodox Samaritans. There were many disputes, even within the Pharisee group, about how the Law was to be applied, but later rabbinic literature tended to generalize disputes into the rival schools of Hillel and Shammai. Jesus had many disputes with Pharisees though he was also on visiting terms with some of them (Luke 7:36; 14:1). But the bitterness between Church and Synagogue [[➝ synagogue]] at the time of the composition of the gospels may be responsible for the harsh condemnations of Matt. 23 etc. and the portrayal of Jews as murderers whose children will suffer the consequences of their sins (Matt. 27:25).
At Jamnia the foundations of later Judaism were laid. Amid all the diversity of Judaism, the common elements were the rite of circumcision, observance of the Sabbath, veneration of the Torah, an obligation to the Temple while it remained, and worship of the one God and rejection of all images; and thus a determination to maintain Jewish distinctiveness.

Dictionary of the Bible.

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  • JUDAISM — JUDAISM, the religion, philosophy, and way of life of the Jews. DEFINITION The term Judaism is first found among the Greek speaking Jews of the first century C.E. (Judaismes, see II Macc. 2:21; 8:1; 14:38; Gal. 1:13–14). Its Hebrew equivalent,… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Judaism — • Judaism designates the religious communion which survived the destruction of the Jewish nation by the Assyrians and the Babylonians Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Judaism     Judaism …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Judaism — Ju da*ism, prop. n. [L. Juda[ i]smus: cf. F. juda[ i]sme.] 1. The religious doctrines and rites of the Jews as enjoined in the laws of Moses, and for many adherents, in the Talmud. J. S. Mill. [1913 Webster] 2. Conformity to the Jewish rites and… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Judaism — (n.) c.1400 (attested in Anglo Latin from mid 13c.), from O.Fr. Judaisme and directly from L.L. Judaismus (Tertullian), from Gk. Ioudaismos, from Ioudaios Jew (see JEW (Cf. Jew)). The Anglo Latin reference is to a special tax levied on the Jews… …   Etymology dictionary

  • Judaism — ► NOUN 1) the monotheistic religion of the Jews, based on the Old Testament and the Talmud. 2) Jews collectively. DERIVATIVES Judaist noun. ORIGIN Greek Ioudaïsmos, from the Hebrew form of the name «Judah» …   English terms dictionary

  • Judaism — [jo͞o′dā iz΄əm, jo͞o′dēiz΄əm, jo͞o′dəiz΄əm] n. [ME Judaisme < LL(Ec) Judaismus < Gr(Ec) Ioudaismos < Ioudaios: see JEW] 1. the Jewish religion, a monotheistic religion based on the laws and teachings of the Holy Scripture and the Talmud… …   English World dictionary

  • Judaism — /jooh dee iz euhm, day , deuh /, n. 1. the monotheistic religion of the Jews, having its ethical, ceremonial, and legal foundation in the precepts of the Old Testament and in the teachings and commentaries of the rabbis as found chiefly in the… …   Universalium

  • Judaism — This article is about the Jewish religion. For consideration of ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity, see Jews. Judaica (clockwise from top): Shabbat candl …   Wikipedia

  • Judaism — n. Conservative; Liberal (BE), Progressive (BE); Orthodox; Reform Judaism USAGE NOTE: Liberal Judaism and Progressive Judaism in Great Britain are approximately equivalent to Reform Judaism in North America. Reform Judaism in Great Britain is… …   Combinatory dictionary

  • Judaism — A monotheistic world religion with origins in the prophetic activities of the Jews in relation to the God Yahweh. It is important to distinguish early biblical Judaism, before the fall of the Temple in 70CE, and later Judaism which was focused on …   Dictionary of sociology

  • Judaism — noun /ˈdjuːˌdeɪ.ɪz.əm/ A world religion tracing its origin to the Hebrew people of the ancient Middle East, as documented in their religious writings, the Torah or Old Testament. See Also: Conservative Judaism, Jew, Jewish, Judaic, Judaica,… …   Wiktionary

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